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  • Tennis rackets

    Dear Biomechler,

    here is a summary of the responses I received. Thanks to all responders!

    The original question was:

    I have a question concerning tennis rackets. Are there any standardized
    measurement procedures to determine the dynamic forces acting on the
    hand and arm when hitting the ball? Does anybody know suitable
    measurement techniques to measure these values? The problem behind that
    is the determination of racket frequencies and its resulting forces on
    the player.

    The replies:

    You should contact Duane Knudson, []. He has done
    several studies using small force transducers on the handle to measure
    forces during the forehand stroke

    Rafael Bahamonde

    __________________________________________________ ______________

    Dear Thomas,

    The reference list below may be a starting point for your question. Good

    Rob Bower

    ================================================== =====================

    Baker, J., & Putnam, C., (1979). Tennis Racquet and Ball Responses
    Impact Under Clamped and Freestanding Conditions. Research Quarterly,
    50(2), 164-170.

    Brannigan, M., & Adali, S. (1981). Mathematical modelling and simulation
    a tennis racquet. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, (1),

    Brody, H. (1987). Models of Tennis Racquet Impacts. International
    of Sport Biomechanics, (3), 293-296.

    Brody, H. (1989). Vibration Damping of Tennis Racquets. International
    Journal of Sport Biomechanics, (5), 451-456.

    Elliott, B.C. (1982b). Tennis: The Influence of Grip Tightness on
    Impulse and Rebound Velocity. Medicine and Science in Sports and
    14(5), 348-352.

    Elliott, B.C. Blanksby, B.A., & Ellis, R. (1980). Vibration and rebound
    velocity characteristics of conventional and oversized tennis racquets.
    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 51(4), 608-615.

    Grabiner, M., Groppel, J., Campbell, K. (1983). Resultant tennis ball
    velocity as a function of off-centre impact and grip firmness. Medicine
    Science in Sports and Exercise, 15(6), 542-544.

    Hatze, H. (1992a). Objective Biomechanical Determination of Tennis
    Properties. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 8, 175-287.

    Hatze, H. (1992b). The Effectiveness of Grip Bands in Reducing Racquet
    Vibration Transfer and Slipping. Medicine and Science in Sports and
    Exercise, 24(20), 226-230

    Hatze, H. (1976). Forces and duration of impact, and grip tightness
    the tennis stroke. Medicine and Science in Sports, 8(2), 88-95.

    Hennig, E., Rosenbaum, D., & Milani, T. (1992). Transfer of Tennis
    Vibrations onto the Human Forearm. Medicine and Science in Sports and
    Exercise, 1134-1140.

    Knudson, D. (1991b) Factors Affecting Force Loading on the Hand in the
    Tennis Forehand. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 31(4),

    Knudson, D., & White S. (1989) Forces on the Hand in the Tennis Forehand

    Drive: Application of Force Sensing Resistors. International Journal of
    Sport Biomechanics, 5, 324-331.

    Missavage, R., Baker, J., & Putnam, C. (1984). Theoretical modelling of
    grip firmness during ball-racquet impact. Research Quarterly for
    and Sport, 55(3) 254-260.

    Watanabe, T., Ikegami Y., & Miyashita M., (1979). Tennis: The Effects of

    Grip Firmness on Ball Velocity after Impact. Medicine and Science in
    and Exercise, 11(4), 359-361.

    __________________________________________________ ___________

    Dear Thomas

    In order to measure the forces applied on tennis rackets, it is possible
    glue strains gages on the handle. If the shape of this handle is not to
    complicated, it is possible to acheive forces and torques, if not, you
    have only the frequencies.

    To measure racket frequencies , it is possible also to dispose an
    accelerometer stuck on the frame of the racket.

    In lab conditions, to standardize the measurement, the grip must be
    in a vice and the ball must drop at a known distance.

    Best regards

    Jean Paul Micallef, PhD
    99 Rue du Puech Villa
    France, 34197 Montpellier Cedex 5


    Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pandorf
    Institut fuer Allgemeine Mechanik
    Templergraben 64
    D-52056 Aachen

    phone: ++49-241-804592
    fax: ++49-241-8888231

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