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Xpost: FES and ALN

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  • Xpost: FES and ALN

    Dear Biomch-L readers,

    The following item is cross-posted from Usenet's newgroup,
    in view of its relevance in two quoted papers on Functional Electrical Stimu-
    lation and control of walking prostheses. A theoretical paper "Some results
    concerning Adaptive Logic Networks" is available in Unix-compressed PostScript
    format via anonymous ftp as mentioned in the bibliography.

    I have downloaded the a27exe.exe file and run it successfully on my PC. The
    author, Prof. Armstrong in Edmonton, Alberta/Canada has kindly sent the two
    FES / prosthesis control papers to me; I intend to summarize them on Biomch-L
    upon receipt.

    Enjoy -- hjw.


    Article 5646 in
    From: arms@cs.UAlberta.CA (Bill Armstrong)
    Subject: Latest adaptive logic network software via ftp
    Summary: Release 2.7 of atree ALN simulator available on menaik.
    Keywords: ALN, neural nets
    Sender: news@cs.UAlberta.CA (News Administrator)
    Organization: University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Date: Thu, 20 Aug 1992 14:43:57 GMT

    The atree Adaptive Logic Network Simulation Package and References

    The latest release of the atree adaptive logic network (ALN)
    simulation package, atree release 2.7, is available via anonymous ftp
    from [] in directory pub/ (use
    binary mode). It runs on IBM PCs and compatibles under Windows 3.x.
    Included is documentation and ON-LINE HELP that will help you to
    understand the basic principles of adaptive logic networks and enable
    you to try out some examples of your own creation. All C and C++
    source code is provided.

    The atree package is not a toy, despite the fact that it is used for
    demonstration purposes, and it is non-commercial. Experimenters are
    using it on challenging problems of medicine, physics and the
    environment. It has been used to grade beef based on ultrasound
    images, design hardware to discriminate particles produced by an
    accelerator, help to design walking prostheses for spinal cord damaged
    patients and measure the composition of tarsands from spectral data.

    It is possible to use inexpensive, off-the-shelf programmable logic
    devices to realize the results of training ALNs in high-speed hardware,
    though we do not provide those facilities in the atree software.

    We shall use release 2.7 as an example here, but please see what the
    latest version number is (in case we have had to make corrections)
    before you ftp the software by examining the contents of pub/. The
    software has been in use by subscribers to the alnl mailing list for
    several weeks, and no problems have surfaced. If you want to be on
    the list mail to

    Atree release 2.7 is available in either of two files in this
    directory: atre27.exe and a27exe.exe. The file atre27.exe contains
    the full C and C++ sources for those who want to program some
    applications using Borland C++ 3.x and Application Frameworks, or some
    similar C/C++ development environment. The other, smaller file
    contains just the executables for those who just want to try out atree
    release 2.7.

    Everyone should have a look at the OCR demo! It has been referred to
    as "quite impressive" by experts in the OCR area. Test yourself
    against the trained ALNs, and scribble in your own characters (any
    language, any alphabet) to see how noisy and distorted the characters
    can be, yet still be recognized by the logic networks. The demo can
    be obtained without the rest in pub/a27ocr.exe.

    To set up your software on the PC under Windows 3.x, it is recommended
    that you execute atre27.exe in your main directory, whereupon it will
    create a subdirectory atree_27 and extract everything into it.
    Running "setup" in that directory will create a group of icons you can
    use to invoke demos and the facilities for programming adaptive logic
    network applications in the lf language. The "Open" command gives you
    access to numerous instructive examples. Clicking on the Help button
    gives you access to explanations of theory and code.

    The Unix version, atree release 2.0, will be upgraded sometime to add
    some of the functionality of release 2.7. It is not yet capable of
    the nice color displays of the Windows version, but besides running on
    Unix workstations it can be easily ported to Macintosh, Amiga, and
    other machines. Because of the on-line help, even those ultimately
    wanting to use a Unix platform are encouraged to look at release 2.7
    for Windows.

    Thanks to all those who have sent comments about their work on ALNs,
    and have helped us to develop new concepts at a rapid rate. We would
    appreciate your continued help in finding any problems in the latest

    Welcome to the world of adaptive logic networks!

    Bill Armstrong

    Recommended Publications on Adaptive Logic Networks

    W. Armstrong, Adaptive Boolean Logic Element, U. S. Patent 3934231,
    Feb. 28, 1974 (multiple filings in various countries),
    assigned to Dendronic Decisions Limited.

    G. v. Bochmann, W. Armstrong, Properties of Boolean Functions
    with a Tree Decomposition, BIT 13, 1974. pp. 1-13.

    W. Armstrong, Gilles Godbout: Use of Boolean Tree Functions to Perform
    High-Speed Pattern Classification and Related Tasks, Dept. d'IRO,
    Universite de Montreal, Doc. de Travail #53, 1974. (unpublished,
    except in summary form as follows

    W. Armstrong and G. Godbout, "Properties of Binary Trees
    of Flexible Elements Useful in Pattern Recognition", IEEE 1975
    International Conf. on Cybernetics and Society, San Francisco, 1975,
    IEEE Cat. No. 75 CHO 997-7 SMC, pp. 447-449.

    W. Armstrong and J. Gecsei, "Architecture of a Tree-based
    Image Processor", 12th Asilomar Conf. on Circuits, Systems
    and Computers, Pacific Grove, Calif., 1978, pp. 345-349.

    W. Armstrong and J. Gecsei, "Adaptation Algorithms for
    Binary Tree Networks", IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and
    Cybernetics, 9, 1979, pp. 276-285.

    W. Armstrong, J.-D. Liang, D. Lin, S. Reynolds, Experiments Using
    Parsimonious Adaptive Logic, Tech. Rept. TR 90-30, Department of
    Computing Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada,
    T6G 2H1. This is now available in a revised form via anonymous FTP
    from [] in pub/ (the
    title of the revised document is "Some Results concerning Adaptive
    Logic Networks").

    W. Armstrong, A. Dwelly, J.-D. Liang, D. Lin, S. Reynolds, Learning
    and Generalization in Adaptive Logic Networks, in Artificial Neural
    Networks, Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on
    Artificial Neural Networks ( ICANN'91), Espoo, Finland, June 24-28,
    1991, T. Kohonen, K.Makisara, O. Simula, J. Kangas eds.
    Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inc. N. Y. 1991, vol. 2, pp. 1173-1176.

    Allen G. Supynuk, William W. Armstrong, Adaptive Logic Networks and
    Robot Control, Proc. Vision Interface Conference '92, also called
    AI/VI/GI '92, Vancouver B. C., May 11-15, 1992, pp. 181 - 186.

    R. B. Stein, A. Kostov, M. Belanger, W. W. Armstrong and D. B.
    Popovic, Methods to Control Functional Electrical Stimulation in
    Walking, First International FES Symposium, Sendai, Japan, July 23 -
    25, 1992 (Invited paper, to appear).

    Aleksandar Kostov, Richard B. Stein, William W. Armstrong, Monroe
    Thomas, Evaluation of Adaptive Logic Networks for Control of Walking
    in Paralyzed Patients, 14th Ann. Int'l Conf. IEEE Engineering in
    Medicine and Biology Society, Paris, France, Oct. 29 - Nov. 1, 1992
    (to appear).

    In case you have difficulty in obtaining the above documents or the
    atree release 2.0 software for Unix or release 2.7 for IBM-PC and
    compatibles under Windows, the software and all of the above documents
    prior to 1991 can be obtained from the University of Alberta for a
    media fee to cover the costs of copying and mailing of $150
    (Canadian), made payable to the University of Alberta. Two 3 1/2"
    diskettes are normally included but an attempt will be made to satisfy
    needs for other media, e.g. tapes. Orders can be sent c/o Professor
    W. W. Armstrong, Department of Computing Science, University of
    Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2H1.

    ************************************************** *

    Prof. William W. Armstrong, Computing Science Dept.
    University of Alberta; Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H1, Tel. +1(403)492 2374, FAX 492 1071