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Standardization of reporting gait kinetics?

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  • Standardization of reporting gait kinetics?

    Hi all,

    The ISB has previously made recommendations for standardized reporting of kinematic parameters (Wu et al., 2002, Wu et al., 2005). Does anyone know if there has been a similar effort to standardize gait kinetic parameter reporting (e.g. reference frame definitions for ankle, knee, and hip moments)? If so, would you please direct me to any publications documenting this?


    Pete Shull
    Stanford University
    PhD Candidate, Mechanical Engineering

  • #2
    Re: Standardization of reporting gait kinetics?

    Hi Pete,

    I'm not aware of any society-recommended standards like the ISB kinematic ones you noted. The joint coordinate system (Cole et al., 1993, J. Biomech. Engr.) is used often but is not orthogonal which is obviously a problem if you want orthogonal joint moments. For orthogonal systems it doesn't seem like there's a consensus on which segment's coordinate system (proximal or distal) the joint moment should be expressed in.

    Schache and Baker (2007, Gait & Posture) is another good paper on the topic. I think they argue for the use of the JCS instead of orthogonal systems.
    Last edited by Ross Miller; October 31st, 2011, 08:43 PM. Reason: wrong year on G&P paper


    • #3
      Re: Standardization of reporting gait kinetics?

      Hi Pete,

      This is a very good debate to (re)open.
      The question of using the JCS for the joint moment expression is quite old:
      * Andrews JG. On the specification of joint configurations and motions. J Biomech. 1984;17(2):155-8.

      There was also an interesting debate for the expression of the joint moment at the lumbar spine in the 2000:
      * Plamondon A, Gagnon M, Gravel D. Comments on 'Asymmetric low back loading in asymmetric lifting movements is not prevented by pelvic twist'. J Biomech. 1999 Jun;32(6):635, 637-8.
      * Kingma I, van Dieen JH, de Looze MP, Toussaint HM, Dolan P, Baten CTM. Authors' response: On the use of axis systems in quantifcation of lumbar loading during asymmetric lifting. J Biomech. 1999 Jun;32(6): 637-8.
      * van Dieen JH, Kingma I. Letter to the Editor: Reporting net moments about the lumbar spine. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2001 May;16(4):348-9.
      * Gagnon A, Desjardins P, Larrive A. Reply by the Authors: Joint coordinate systems of axes for coherence in reporting kinematic and kinetic data. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2001 May;16(4):349-50.

      The problem is that the expression of the joint moments in the JCS is tricky because the axes are non-orthogonal:
      * Fujie H, Livesay GA, Fujita M, Woo SL. Forces and moments in six-DOF at the human knee joint: mathematical description for control. J Biomech. 1996 Dec;29(12):1577-85.
      * Desroches G, Cheze L, Dumas R. Expression of joint moment in the joint coordinate system. J Biomech Eng. 2010 Nov;132(11):114503.

      Some authors have recently compared several expressions of the joint moment (but I am not sure that the projection on non-orthogonal axes was appropriate).
      * Schache AG, Baker R. On the expression of joint moments during gait. Gait Posture. 2007 Mar;25(3):440-52.
      * Brandon SC, Deluzio KJ. Robust features of knee osteoarthritis in joint moments are independent of reference frame selection. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2011 Jan;26(1):65-70.

      Thus, the debate is not closed.
      I personally used the expression of the joint moment in the JCS using an non-orthogonal projection.
      Any other comments ?

      Raphael Dumas
      LBMC UMR_T 9406 - Laboratoire de Biomécanique et Mécanique des Chocs
      Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - IFSTTAR


      • #4
        Re: Standardization of reporting gait kinetics?

        Hi Pete,

        This is a very important and somewhat timely question and something I feel should be openly debated within this forum. In fact, members of the ISB executive council, including myself in the capacity of Education officer, are currently discussing the need to develop joint kinetic standards similar to those currently available for kinematics.

        There are no standards on the way kinetic data are quantified or reported, with different methods being used in different laboratories and different software systems. This is obviously a large concern and something that we strongly feel needs to be rectified. We are thus now looking to form a committee to develop standards and fill this critical void in the literature. On this point, we are looking for volunteers to be a part of such a committee. The intent is to actively and openly discuss current approaches, their associated benefits and pitfalls, in the hopes of arriving at a universally applicable set of standards that can and should be adopted by the biomechanics community as a whole. I thus strongly encourage anyone interested in being part of such a committee to email me at their earliest convenience.

        Scott McLean
        Assistant Professor
        School of Kinesiology
        The University of Michigan Ann Arbor