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Computing heel strike and toe off from marker data alone?

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  • Computing heel strike and toe off from marker data alone?

    Hi everyone,

    I would like to compute heel strike and toe off time points for walking gait on a treadmill from marker data alone. Does anyone know of good algorithms (the simpler and more robust the better) for doing this?

    Thanks,
    Pete
    Last edited by Peter Shull; July 22, 2013, 04:47 AM.

  • #2
    Re: Computing heel strike and toe off from marker data alone?

    Hi Pete,

    in their paper "Detecting foot-to-ground contact from kinematic data in running" Christian Maiwald and colleagues introduced a new algorithm for ground contact detection and compared it to three other widely used algorithms. If I remember correctly, all algorithms are reported in detail in this paper but I don't know if those algorithms might be directly applicable for walking conditions.

    You can find the details in: Maiwald C, Sterzing T, Mayer TA, Milani TL (2009) Detecting foot-to-ground contact from kinematic data in running. Footwear Science, 1(2), 111-118.

    Best regards,

    Dominic

    ----
    Dominic Gehring, PhD
    Department of Sport and Sport Science
    University of Freiburg
    Schwarzwaldstra├če 175
    79117 Freiburg
    Germany

    Email. dominic.gehring@sport.uni-freiburg.de

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    • #3
      Re: Computing heel strike and toe off from marker data alone?

      Hi Pete,
      I and colleagues analysed 5 kinematic algorithms using data collected from 4 cats walking under 3 different slope conditions (Pantall et al. 2012). We found that the algorithm that produced the lowest random error and low systematic error for stance onset and offset compared to ground reaction force derived times, was one adapted from Zeni et al. (2008) for overground and treadmill walking. This adapted method defined onset of stance as the maximum anterior-posterior displacement of MTP marker relative to the greater trochanter marker. The end of stance was defined as the minimum anterior-posterior displacement between the MTP and greater trochanter marker. We did however find that both subject and slope had a significant effect on systematic and random errors.

      Pantall A, Gregor RJ, and Prilutsky BI. Stance and swing phase detection during level and slope walking in the cat: effects of slope, injury, subject and kinematic detection method. J Biomech 45: 1529-1533, 2012.
      Zeni JA, Richards JG, Higginson JS. Two simple methods for determining gait events during treadmill and overground walking using kinematic data. Gait & Posture 27: 710–714. 2008.


      Regards,
      Annette


      Annette Pantall PhD DO(UK)
      Assistant Professor
      Michigan State University
      College of Osteopathic Medicine
      Department of Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine
      East Fee Hall, 965 Fee Road
      East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1316
      USA

      pantall@msu.edu

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      • #4
        Re: Computing heel strike and toe off from marker data alone?

        This topic has been addressed on Biomch-L a few times, I found a few relevant threads and posts via the search box (top right of the Biomch-L screen). I'm not sure if any of these are still relevant, but here they are anyway:






        Ton van den Bogert
        Biomch-L co-moderator

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        • #5
          Re: Computing heel strike and toe off from marker data alone?

          Hi Pete,
          consider the Foot Velocity Algorithm proposed by O'Connor et. al. (2007). It is a very simple method using only heel and toe markers and from my experience it is very accurate for gait featuring heel strike (in contrast to midfoot and forefoot strikes).

          More details: O’Connor, Ciara M., Susannah K. Thorpe, Mark J. O’Malley, and Christopher L. Vaughan. "Automatic detection of gait events using kinematic data." Gait & Posture 25, no. 3 (2007): 469-474.

          Best regards,
          Jindrich

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