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  • Internal Rocker Systems in Footwear

    Aloha,

    We are looking for novel technologies that incorporate internal rocker mechanisms in footwear to reduce the pressure and shearing forces on the foot.

    Here are a few examples.

    By Diapedia LLC
    https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/1030377

    By Kingetics LLC
    https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/398459

    Your assistance would be appreciated.

    Mahalo,
    Dr. Steven King

  • #2
    Re: Internal Rocker Systems in Footwear

    Originally posted by Dr. Steven King View Post
    Aloha,

    We are looking for novel technologies that incorporate internal rocker mechanisms in footwear to reduce the pressure and shearing forces on the foot.

    Here are a few examples.

    By Diapedia LLC
    https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/1030377

    By Kingetics LLC
    https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/398459

    Your assistance would be appreciated.

    Mahalo,
    Dr. Steven King


    Hi,
    How can we assist exactly?

    Dr. S. Sobhani

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: Internal Rocker Systems in Footwear

      Greetings,
      There are hundreds of styles of rocker bottom shoes currently on the market: sneakers, dress shoes and clunky looking but functional!

      Naturally, the clunky looking but functional would be a less desirable choice for someone trying to avoid an initial foot ulcer. But to prevent a subsequent ulcer (>50% likely over the next few years), this choice might be acceptable.

      Rocker bottom shoes are effective in adding sagittal plane motion to compensate for ankle equinus and hallux limitus, both of which are common in the diabetic neuropathic foot.

      Regarding the equinus component, the talocrural joint needs at least 10 degrees of dorsiflexion. One mechanism to compensate for reduced motion is to pronate the foot and this pronation in the more distal joint "cheats" for the additional motion. Raising the heel (inclining the foot) pre-plantarflexes the talocrural joint to achieve 10 degrees of dorsiflexion during gait. It answers the need for 10 degrees of motion.

      Regarding the hallux limitus part, the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ1) needs to reach 65 degrees of dorsiflexion (it starts at about 15 degrees). This accommodates the flexions in proximal joints in the lower extremity and allows the first metatarsal to plantarflex and provide a stable segment through foot propulsion. A compensation mechanism for restricted motion here is an "abductory twist" after heel lift which repositions the foot so that push off is on the medial side of the hallux instead of the distal part of the distal phalanx. This results in a "pinched callus" on the medial border of the Big Toe and is a common site for diabetic ulceration. If the MTPJ1 is rigid, a rocker may need to provide up to 50 degrees of sagittal plan motion!

      All of this motion can be made up out side the shoe by modifying the sole. A single rocker at the toebreak line can be rounded and tapered like a Dutch wooden shoe. If you want to conceal that much motion, some of the rocker action could be hidden in the shoe. Assume we have only 6mm of thickness in the shoe.

      So the question back to Steven King is what amount of motion would you like to hide inside the shoe?

      Jim Furmato

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: Internal Rocker Systems in Footwear

        Originally posted by furmato58 View Post
        Greetings,
        There are hundreds of styles of rocker bottom shoes currently on the market: sneakers, dress shoes and clunky looking but functional!
        All of this motion can be made up out side the shoe by modifying the sole. A single rocker at the toebreak line can be rounded and tapered like a Dutch wooden shoe. If you want to conceal that much motion, some of the rocker action could be hidden in the shoe. Assume we have only 6mm of thickness in the shoe.

        So the question back to Steven King is what amount of motion would you like to hide inside the shoe?

        Jim Furmato
        Mahalo Drs. Furmato and Sobhani,

        Jim your research lab at Temple U. should be receiving two sets of our orthtoics in synergized combat boots this week. Please have a look at them and try them on if you wish.

        We would like to have flat bottom shoes with no incorporated "toe spring" in the last as mentioned.
        Reason is you loose the ability to completely load a composite spring plate if the shoe is already bent, and it is difficult to fit spring plates onto "bent" "declining plane of wedged foam" standard shoes.
        External rockers built with EVA foam do not crate the lift that internal composite spring levers do on the rearfoot nor do they transfer the load and shear off the metatarsal heads as well. *this is yet to be proven in the lab *.

        How exactly can you assist?
        What research and development has gone into using internal lever rockers INSIDE our shoes and on the bottoms of our AFO's and prosthetics?

        As you may know that Dr. Hoke at Temple U. had a patent on using a single rocker inside shoes but that was the extent of what we could find in our research.

        Avini from Nike has a patent on a double composite leaf spring that is used on most prosthetics today, but that does not use a lever and a leaf spring is not a lever, it does not do work it only captures and releases energy from the bending of the leaf spring. As Dr. Nigg stated in "The Biomechanics of Running Shoes" that springs must return energy at the right frequency and right time of gait with sufficient force. How can a leaf spring return enough energy if it is being returned over 200 Hz? The standard humans frequency of gait is apx 2 Hz.
        A internal lever that lifts the heel at 2 Hz and with a 5:1 mechanical advantage perhaps would offer greater energy efficiency of gait.

        If you get rid of the EVA in shoes we have 26mm of available thickness in rearfoot and 16 mm in the forefoot not just the assumed 6mm. IF you get rid of blown foams as your midsoles and replace it with something else and perhaps better.

        If you get rid of the EVA in shoes you also save our landfills from having to swallow 20 billion cubic liters of shoe foam waste per year per year for the next 1000 years.

        Who is doing research into this type of maximalism?
        "Maximalism must show significant and measurable improvements in energy efficiency, stability, physical safety and Greenability of our gait systems. It is the inverse of minimalism." S.K.

        As of yesterday I completed 100,000 vertical feet climbing-prototesting in 2016 with our proposed orthotics and shoe system.
        I understand that this is not lab research but the views are mo bettah.
        Check out my run on Strava.
        https://www.strava.com/activities/608525937

        We are looking for those who are looking forward.

        Mahalo,
        Steve

        Dr. Steven King
        Prior Army Officer and Podiatrist
        Managing Member Kingetics LLC
        808-243-5464 Tel


        Subject Matter Expert for ASTM American Society of Testing Materials committees;
        -E54.4 Homeland Security Applications and Personal Protective Equipment, Tactical Body Armor
        -F13 Pedestrian and Walkway Safety Footwear Testing and Standards


        Co-Principle Investigator SBIR A11-109 “Advanced Composite Insoles for the Reduction of Stress Fractures.” US Department of Defense and Army Medical Research and Materials Command


        Co-Author US Pat.# 8,353,968 "Spring Lever Orthotic Device"

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: Internal Rocker Systems in Footwear

          Hello Dr. King,

          Have you looked into using non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to aide in your design work? I have used Abaqus on a variety of biomedical applications which can be seen on my webpage at OptimalDevice.com. A related article that I just read in this publication on page 12 should be well aligned with your work. I am interested in hearing your thoughts and I hope this helps.

          Rob Stupplebeen

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: Internal Rocker Systems in Footwear

            Originally posted by rstupplebeen View Post
            Hello Dr. King,

            Have you looked into using non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to aide in your design work? I have used Abaqus on a variety of biomedical applications which can be seen on my webpage at OptimalDevice.com. A related article that I just read in this publication on page 12 should be well aligned with your work. I am interested in hearing your thoughts and I hope this helps.

            Rob Stupplebeen

            Aloha Rob,
            We have started some preliminary FEA at University of Hawaii and at University of Wisconson Madison this last spring for their BME design classes.
            https://bmedesign.engr.wisc.edu/proj...ced_orthotics/

            We will start on another grant research project with a more in-depth FEA at North Dakota State University this summer with Dr. Chad Ulven sponsored by Ameriflax.
            We think that biocomposite midsoles in shoes will be better for the environment than the 35 billion cubic liters of blown foam shoe waste injected into our landfills each year globally.

            We have not looked into non-linear FEA's and would be happy to do so.

            Mahalo,
            Steve

            Comment

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