Dear Colleagues,

I have recently been asked to write a review describing alpine ski boot
biomechanics for a non peer-reviewed journal. The readership of the journal
is primarily coaches, athletes and associated sports and sports-medicine
personnel.

My experience in ski-boot research has been at a relatively fundamental
level and related to knee injuries [1]. My primary sources of information
have thus far been from the series of books published for the Skiing Trauma
and Safety International Symposiums (of which I have obtained all issues),
IOC publications and a few papers as cited at the end of this message.

My question is whether other people in the biomechanics community are aware
of research that relates skiing performance with ski boot characteristics.
There are many claims by the various manufacturers of 'energy transfer',
'torsion control', 'impulse response' and 'power transfer' systems, however
I have not come across any literature that has measured these factors. While
I know that these companies do a great deal of research, I am hoping that
some has filtered to the public domain that I could be pointed towards.

Any help will be greatly appreciated and a summary of responses will be
posted.

Respectfully,
Daniel Benoit
Karolinska Hospital (E1-7tr)
Section of Sports Medicine
S-171 76 Stockholm
Sweden

References:

[1] Benoit D.L., Cerulli G., Lamontagne M., Greaves C, Caraffa A, Liti A,
and Schonhuber H. The relationship between ACL strain and knee joint forces
during the backward fall in skiing. In: Conference Proceedings of the
XVIIIth International Society of Biomechanics Conference Zurich,
Switzerland. 2001.

[2] Natri A, Beynnon BD, Ettlinger CF, Johnson RJ, et al. Alpine ski
bindings and injuries. Current findings. Sports Med. 1999;28(1):35-48
[3] Jarvinen M, Natri A, Laurila S, Kannus P. Mechanisms of anterior
cruciate ligament ruptures in skiing. Knee Surg.Sports Traumatol.Arthrosc.
1994;2(4):224-28
[4] Gerritsen KG, Nachbauer W, van den Bogert AJ. Computer simulation of
landing movement in downhill skiing: anterior cruciate ligament injuries.
J.Biomech. 1996;29(7):845-54
[5] Webster J.D., Brown CA. Analysis of the Loads on the ACL during
Backwards Falls in Skiing. (In: Johnson RJ, Mote CD, Jr., eds. Skiing Trauma
and Safety: Tenth International Symposium.) Philadelphia: American Society
for Testing and Materials, 1993; 254-69.
[6] McConkey JP. Mechanisms of knee ligament injuries in alpine skiing.
Canadian Journal of Sports Science 12, 163-169. 1987.
[7] Schaff P, Hauser W. [Ski shoe versus knee joint--3: Risk for falling
backward]. Sportverletz.Sportschaden 1990;4(4):151-62
[8] Bally A, Boreiko F, Brown CA. Modelling forces on the anterior
cruciate ligament during backward falls while skiing. (In: Binet MH, Mote
CD, Jr., Johnson RJ, eds. Skiing Trauma and Safety: 7th International
Symposium.) Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1989;
267-76.
[9] Louie JK, Kuo CY, Gutierrez MD, Mote CD, Jr. Surface EMG and torsion
measurements during snow skiing: laboratory and field tests. J.Biomech.
1984;17(10):713-24

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