Hi all,
I posted last week requesting any info on 3D graphics packages
for displaying the human body. Thanks to everybody who responded to
my request. Following is a summary of the responses I got, I tried to
eliminate any duplication. If anyone has any more suggestions please
feel free to send them on.

Thanks again,

Dave Pease
Biomechanics PhD student
University of Otago
School of Physical Education
Dunedin, New Zealand
SAMMIE is available from SAMMIE CAD Limited whose address is:

Martin Freer
Arwen House
7 The Pingle
Woodhouse Road
Leics, UK


c/o Vehicle Ergonomics Group
Department of Human Sciences
Loughborough University of Technology
Leics, UK

Phone: 509-264133
Fax: 509-610724

Martin will give you more details, but extensive discounts are available
academic users. The reference you mentioned is now very dated - a
better and
more recent general description is by Case, Porter and Bonney in
book published by Taylor and Francis.

I hope we hear from you,

Keith Case
I read your posting on Biomech-l, and I thought I'd send you some
on SIMM (Software for Interactive Musculoskeletal Modeling). SIMM is
and animation package for musculoskeletal models. It lets you build
of arbitrary complexity, compute muscle forces and moment arms, and
motion data that you recorded experimentally or computed in a

When animating motion data, it displays smooth-shaded bone surfaces,
reaction force vectors, and stationary objects (such as the floor). The
are displayed as line segments (a few leg muscles have 3D surfaces
for them), and their colors change to reflect their relative activation

SIMM runs on SGI workstations, and costs $2,500 for academic use. I
can send
you more detailed information if you want (if so, send me your address).

The text from one of our brochures is appended to this message.

Pete Loan

Software for Interactive Musculoskeletal Modeling
MusculoGraphics, Inc.


SIMM (Software for Interactive Musculoskeletal Modeling) is a
graphics-based software system that enables the user to quickly develop
and analyze musculoskeletal models. In SIMM, a musculoskeletal
model consists of a set of rigid body segments that are connected by
joints. Muscle-tendon actuators span the joints and develop force,
thus generating moments about the joints.

SIMM enables a analysis of a musculoskeletal model by calculating the
joint moments (i.e., muscle force multiplied by moment arm) that each
actuator can generate at any body position. By manipulating a model
on the computer graphics system, the user can quickly explore the effects
of changing musculoskeletal geometry and other model parameters on
the muscle forces and joint moments.

Since the software can be used to study many different musculoskeletal
structures, it can enhance the productivity of investigators working
on diverse problems in biomechanics.

Design Goals

Four goals were established in designing and implementing the software.
Specifically, it should:

* Be general enough so that a wide variety of musculoskeletal
structures can be modeled

* Provide realistic models of muscle and tendon, and allow accurate
specification of joint kinematics

* Provide an interactive, graphics-based environment so the model can
be visualized, altered, and analyzed efficiently

* Be extensible so that new features, such as a more complex
muscle-tendon model, can easily be added to the software

Major Features

* Enables users to develop models of any musculoskeletal structure,
either human or animal. Current uses include the human lower
extremity, elbow, shoulder, finger, and even a cockroach leg.

* Displays lighted, smooth-shaded three-dimensional images of the

* Provides an intuitive graphical interface for manipulating the models

* Allows analysis of models by computing muscle forces, moment arms,
and joint torques

* Can read-in and "playback" animations of experimentally recorded or
simulated movements, for example walking or cycling.


SIMM has applications in many areas involving biomechanics. SIMM can
increase the productivity of:

* Researchers investigating various issues in biomechanics, such as
muscle coordination and joint reconstruction

* Medical students and residents studying musculoskeletal anatomy and

* Kinesiologists recording the motion of patients with movement

* Workspace designers studying the ergonomics of various devices and

* Computer scientists creating human body models for virtual realities

The SIMM Environment

A musculoskeletal model is specified with three types of input files.
The bone files contain lists of the polygons representing the bone
surfaces. The joint file specifies the kinematics of each joint.
Finally, the muscle file contains a list of coordinates that describe
the line of action of each muscle-tendon actuator, and the parameters
needed to compute muscle force. The File Loader tool scans these input
files and creates a data structure that represents the
musculoskeletal model.

SIMM allows the user to load one or more musculoskeletal models by
sets of input files. Once loaded, a model can be acted upon by a
number of editing and analysis tools. Each tool is contained within
its own window and has a distinct function. These tools include the
Model Viewer, Muscle Editor, Joint Editor, and Plot Maker.

The Model Viewer tool controls the user's view of the musculoskeletal
models. Individual muscles can displayed or hidden, the bones can be
shaded or shown in wire frame, and three-dimensional views can stored
and recalled. Slider bars can be used to move each of the joints
individually, or the entire model can be animated.

The Muscle Editor tool gives access to the parameters that describe a
muscle. Muscle paths can be interactively altered, for example to
simulate tendon transfer surgery. The parameters that govern the
force generating behavior of the muscles can also be changed.

The Joint Editor tool enables the user to view and alter joint
kinematics. The cubic splines that control the movement of the joints
can be graphically changed. The resulting joint motion can be
examined instantly by viewing the model.

The Plot Maker tool allows the user to analyze a model by creating plots
of muscle forces, moment arms, and joint torques. Many options are
available for creating plots and graphing data from other sources (for
example experimental data). The plotted data can also exported as text or
postscript for use in other applications.

Hardware Requirements

SIMM runs on the full line of workstations from Silicon Graphics, Inc.


This software is commercially available and comes with a user manual
input files that define a model of the human lower extremity. This model
is described in detail in the following documents:

Delp, S. L., "Surgery Simulation: A Computer Graphics System to
Design and Analyze Musculoskeletal Reconstructions of the Lower
Limb," Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1990.

Delp, S. L., Loan, J. P., Hoy, M. G., Zajac, F. E., Topp, E. L.,
Rosen, J. M., "An interactive graphics-based model of the lower
extremity to study orthopaedic surgical procedures," IEEE
Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 37, pp. 757-767, 1990.

Companion Products

The engineers at MusculoGraphics are currently developing a companion
product called the Dynamics Pipeline. This software links SIMM to
SD/FAST (Symbolic Dynamics, Mountain View, CA), which simulates
dynamics of rigid-body systems. With the Pipeline, the user is able
to perform forward and inverse dynamic simulations on any
musculoskeletal model developed in SIMM, without writing any
software. For forward dynamics, the user can specify muscle
activation levels and compute the resulting motion. The Pipeline
includes several dynamic muscle models from which the user can choose
based on his speed and accuracy demands. For inverse dynamics, the
user specifies the trajectories of the body segments over time, and
the Pipeline computes the joint torques required to create the
motion. If the user wants to perform more complicated analyses
(e.g., optimal control of muscle activations or collision detection
between body segments), they can write the software to implement
these features and easily link them into the Pipeline. It is
anticipated that the Dynamics Pipeline will be available by end of 1994.

Further information can be obtained from:

MusculoGraphics, Inc.
1840 Oak Avenue
Evanston, IL 60201 USA

(708) 866-1882
(708) 866-1808 : FAX
Hello Dave,
You might check out my locomotion analysis and display software. It is
magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu under /pub/gaitlab You can grab the files
anonymous FTP. It runs under DOS with a 32 bit extender and the
source code
is there also. There is no support for Peak Performance file formats (only
Oxford Metrics and Motion Analysis Corporation) but since all the
code is there you could add it yourself.

Dear David,
A nice review of 3D-models is in Peacock and Karwowski(eds) 1993
Automotive Ergonomics published by Taylor and Francis.
with kind regards
Johan F.M.Molenbroek
Assistant Professor Engineering Anthropometry
Faculty Industrial Design Engineering
Delft University of Technology
Jaffalaan 9
2628 BX Delft, The Netherlands
Optimum Human Performance Ctrs has a 3D software package
that you can
use with the Peak system. It is called BioVision, and it works on a
Graphics Workstaion. I cannot locate their phone # at this time, but
address is: Optimum Human Performance Ctrs
2882 Sand Hill Road
Suite #116
Menlo Park, CA 94025
The company will send you a demo version of the BioVision Software.

************* Raymond McKenna, P.T.
** Physical Therapist/Research Assistant
** ** ** ** Texas Woman's University
** ** ** ** School of Physical Therapy
** ** ** ** ** 1130 M.D. Anderson Blvd.
********** ** ** Houston, Texas 77030
** ** (713) 794-2075
******** e-mail: HG_MCKENNA@TWU.EDU
Hi Dave:
Here is a compilation of 3-D human models previously posted on
bio-mech-l. If you have come across any more of these please e-mail
me the new information.

For the information of "Jack" developed at University of Pennsylvania
Dawn Becket: Associate Director, Center for Human Modeling and

Phone: (215) 898-1488
Fax: (215) 898-0587

__________________________________________________ _______
Dear Maki,

MADYMO-3D is a hybrid software package (Rigid-bodies and finite
in combination with anthropometric data from GEBOD (WPAB)
More information can be obtained from
TNO Crash-Safety Research Centre
P.O. Box 6033, 2600 JA DELFT, The Netherlands
Tel: +31-15-696900
Fax: +31-15-624321
__________________________________________________ _______

Dear Maki,

on Wed, 13 Apr 1994, you wrote,
__________________________________________________ _______
I am a graduate student at Space Systems Lab at University of Marylnd.
Currently, I am trying to gather some information on 3-D Dynamic Body
If anyone has an information or know of a paper on a full body, 3-D
model, such as "Jack" software from Penn State or "Mannequin"
software, please
repond to:
Any information is appreciated. Thanks in advance.

I did my masters thesis on full body simulation of gait and the problems
associated with dynamic simulation fof a multibody model. I can offer
several routes for you to gain information.

1) Dwight Meglan (who often writes on BIOMECH-L) did his Ph.D
on this subject. His objective was to simulate gait also, and I used many
of his ideas in my own work.
Some references for his work are:

Meglan, D. A., "Enhanced Analysis of Human Locomotion,"
Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1991.

Meglan, D. A., "A 3D Passive Mechanical Model of the Human
Foot for
use in Locomotion Synthesis," Proceedings of the Second North
Congress of Biomechanics, Chicago, p. 89-90, 1992.

2) Read the work of Gary Yamaguchi, who also did his Ph.D
dissertation on
this topic. His focus was also gait:

Yamaguchi, G, F. E. Zajac, "Restoring Unassisted Natural Gait to
Paraplegics Via Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation...," IEEE
actions on Biomedical Engineering, 37:886-902, 1990.

Green, J. L., G. Yammaguchi, "Effects of Bilateral Assymetry on a
model of the countermovement jump," Proceedings of the Second
American Congress of Biomechanics, Chicago, p. 543-4, 1992.

3) Read my masters thesis. This was the only publication of my work
on this.
(I had to get started on my Ph.D.). My thesis was two parts, the first
an attempt to investigate the simulation of walking in the hopes of
a tool to simulate surgical effects on gait. The software package I used
ADAMS/Android, made by Mechanical Dynamics in Ann Arbor,
Michigan. I suggest
you contact them and request some free literature. I developed an
with our biomechanics motion analysis equipment and force plate to
drive an
ANDROID model for both forward and inverse dynamics simulations.
was limited due to a number of inherent complexities. These
were investigated in greater depth in the second part of my thesis.

Patton, J. L., Masters thesis, Michigan State University, 1993.

4) Tom Kepple who is right nearby might offer help:
Tom works at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, and works
Dr. Stephen Stanhope in the gait and Biomechanics research lab. He is
using ADAMS/Android for the simulation of gait, and has a "model
for making a 3D model out of body measurements for gait analysis. He
The titles of his references, I dont seem to have them at hand right now.

Good Luck, and let me know what you find out!
_/_/_/ Jim Patton
_/ _/ _/ _/_/_/_/_/_/ _/_/_/ _/_/ _/ Graduate Student
_/_/_/ _/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Biomedical Engineering
_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ Northwestern U
_/ _/_/_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/_/ j-patton@nwu.edu
_/ _/ _/ _/ _/ _/_/_/ _/ _/ (312) 549-3263

__________________________________________________ _______

The "Articulated Total Body Model" (available
through Wright Patterson Air Force Base) is an
excellent tool to analyze dynamic behavior
of the human body. It was originally developed
to predict occupant's responses during a car
crash. But it can be used for other applications
as well. It models the body as consisting of 15
rigid links. The user can specify segment properties
(dimension, mass, etc.) and joint properties
(stiffness, damping, etc.). Program output consists
of tabular time histories of segment posistions,
joint forces and torques and also contact forces
with for example a floor panel. I'm not sure about
the graphical capabilities of the program, since
we developed our own animation program.
Here are some references that may be helpful:

Obergefell, L.A., Gardner, T.M., Kaleps, I, and Fleck, J.T.,
"Articulated Total Body Model Enhancements", AAMRL-TR-88-043 1-2,
1988, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

J. Wismans, J.A. Griffioen, and J. Nieboer, "Use of MADYMO in
general impact biomechanis", Computational Methods in Bioengineering
(ASME), BED-Vol. 9, Book No. G00458, 1988

Soest, A.J. van, Schwab, A.L., Bobbert, F.B., and Ingen Schenau,
G.J.van, "SPACAR: a software subroutine package for simulation
of the behavior of biomechanical systems, Journal of Biomechanics,
Vol 25, No. 10, pp. 1219-1226, (Technical note), 1992

I hope this is what you were looking for!


Aya van den Kroonenberg
__________________________________________________ _______
Dear Maki Kosha:

I am doing a very similar project as yours. This project has been done
by many researchers. Of course there still exist many problems need
us to solve and to apply in many others usages. As far as I know,
Dr. Zajac in Stanford University, Dr. Yamaguchi in Arizona State
and many others have published good papers in the Journal of
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, and other journals. They are
very easy
to be searched. I am trying to use ADAMS and SDRC-IDEAS to
approach this
topic. In the future we might discuss more about this topic and could
please post a summary of your request? Good luck.

Cheng Cao
at Michigan State University, East Lansing
__________________________________________________ _______
I have forwarded your note to a colleage Arijit Sengupta at the Technical
University of Nova Scotia, Halifax. He has done some research
various models, and I believe under the name of Biman Das, and Arijit
Sengupta there should be an article in the works.

Nancy Black __|~_)_I__)_|~_
Ecole de genie )_ __)_|_)__ __)
Universite de Moncton | )____) | EMAIL:
Moncton, New Brunswick \\___|____|____|____// FAX: (506)
E1A 3E9 CANADA \\ // PHONE: (506) 858-4079
__________________________________________________ _______
Some of the very best work on dnamic body modeling - for things like
simulation of crash tests - has been done by Dr. N. Rangarajan. His
company is called GESAC and is located in Martinsburg West Virginia.
He also has a home phone in Silver Spring MD which you might try if
have trouble locating him.

| Stephen Dubin VMD PhD |
| Biomedical Engineering and Science Institute |
| Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 |
| Phone: 215-895-2219 Fax: 215-895-4983 |
| Email: dubinse@duvm.ocs.drexel.edu CIS: 76074,55 |

__________________________________________________ _______

Hi Maki

I'm a member of the SPINET project located at the Universtity
of Berne, Switzerland. The SPINET project deals with the
simulation of the human lumbar spine. You will find more
details about this project if you have WWW access. Try the

I'm also interested in software for 3-D dynamic Body Models.
I would appreciate very much if you sent me a collection
of the replies you get.

Thank you very much !

__________________________________________________ ________
Try ADAM -- a package our library has purchased. I can't find the info
on the supplier right now but if you would like to contact the library
to get the information, send mail to: library@umsmed.edu

Hope this helps.

************************************************** *********
Kenneth R. St. John, Assistant Professor Voice: (601) 984-6199
Orthopaedic Research and Biomaterials Fax: (601) 984-6087
University of Mississippi Medical Center Fax: (601) 984-6014
2500 North State Street Fax: (601) 984-5151
Jackson, MS 39216-4505 Internet: stjohn@fiona.umsmed.edu
************************************************** *********
. I work in a group at the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group that has
developed and worked with two computer human models. There are
many 3D human
models now existing. They can be used for applications ranging from
visualization to dynamic analysis of automobile accidents. I am familiar
many of these models, most of which run on Silicon Graphics or other
Unix based
workstations. There are also models that run on PC systems. SAMMIE
is a
relatively old system that I have never seen. For the Unix programs, I
recommend SafeWork from Genicom Consultants in Montreal or Jack
from the
University of Pennsylvania. The only PC model I know very well is
from the Biomechanics Corporation of America. I assume that there may
be more
PC models out there.
If you have any more specific questions, feel free to contact me. I
also be interested in seeing the other responses you recieve.

Good Luck,

Rush Green
Boeing Commercial Airplane Group
PO Box 3707, MS 6H-TX
Seattle, WA 98124
phone: (206) 237-7078
fax: (206) 237-7080
email: grerfx00@ccmail.iasl.ca.boeing.com
Hi Dave Pease,

If you are just looking for a 3d display of the human body with
animation,try JACK the software from University of Pennsylvania.
also offer an eduational institution price and I think it is like
one-tenth of the regular price.

I have not used the software myself, but here at the lab other who use
it think that it is great.

I only know the name and e-mail of the director of the graphics lab at
Univ. of Pennsylvania from where JACK orginates. It is Dr.Norman
Badler, with e-mail "badler@graphics.cis.upenn.edu".

All the best in your search

\__ ____ \__ Name : Ranganathan Ramanathan
/__ / / / \ /___/ / / / \ S-Mail : ASEL, AI DuPont Institute
/ /__/ / / ___/ /__/ / / PO Box 269, Wilmington
ramanath@asel.udel.edu DE 19899
sg92di9e@dunx1.ocs.drexel.edu Phone : (302) 651 6869; (215) 651
Do you know about Mannequin? It's a PC programme, not very
I bought the cheap version and there's also a 'pro' version. You can
specify body size and sex, and rotate all joints. I don't have
further details here at home but could look it up when I'm at work.

Today I came across the WWW reference
It's a representation of human anatomy using 167 horizontal sections,
5mm x 5mm cells in each slice; some joints can be articulated. It has
an X interface.

I also was just told about the WWW reference
http://pat.mdc.com/LB/LB.html. The McDonnell Douglas Human
System is 'a 3-D interactive modeling system providing the capability
to analyze human body fit and function within a geometric structure.'
It currently runs on Silicon Graphics workstations 'with a port to
Packard in progress'. A ninety-day evaluation copy is apparently

I hope you'll summarize things for the list.

-- Robert Funnell, Dept. BioMedical Engineering, McGill University,

If you are interested in a wireframe graphics model, you can send
for a graphics package ("grafath") developed at our lab. It is free of
charge for non-profit use. You can obtain it using ftp through the
Internet network:

ftp valeri.hper.indiana.edu (or ftp

To the prompt "Name", answer: anonymous
To the prompt "Password", answer: anything
You will find yourself in the directory "ftp"
Then type the following:

get mainjmp.f

If you have any problems, contact the address below:

Jesus Dapena
Department of Kinesiology
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Tel: (812) 855-8645