I am recently working on kinematics from multi-segment foot model. I have worked with some models like Oxford foot model, Leardini foot model and Simon foot model. However, all these models define their segmental coordinate systems based on the position of anatomical landmarks. I wonder whether anyone have done/seen any study who focus on defining functional joint center/axis and defining segmental coordinate systems based on them? If there is any study, what are the basic motion tasks to find the joint centers/axis?

Maryam Hajizadeh