Here are some further posts made originally be me ,today, on "Podiatry Arena "


  • With regard to the above it would appear that babies can hold their bodies in an upright position long before they can balance on their feet . Included below is a link to a video of a man balancing babies on the palm of his hand with the babies holding themselves straight whilst the man moves his hand to keep them balanced . A bit like the head of the tibia balancing on the taloncalcaneal complex with the intrinsics keeping things in balance .

    Note -in the video the authors point out that the activities shown in the video should not be tried at home !

    Icelandic swim instructor teaches babies to stand on their own ...

    ▶ 1:45

    20 Jul 2017 - Uploaded by Business Insider UK
    Snorri Magnusson is Iceland's "Baby Whisperer." The swimming instructor teaches babies as young ...
    Gerrard Farrell


    scotfoot, Today at 11:11 AM

  • scotfootActive Member

    Look at figure 6 in the paper below . Again, Luke Kelly .

    Intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to control deformation of the ...
    by LA Kelly - ‎2014 - ‎Cited by 50 - ‎Related articles
    29 Jan 2014 - We test the hypotheses that activation of the three largest plantar intrinsic foot muscles, abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum and quadratus plantae is associated with muscle stretch in response to external load on the foot and that activation of these muscles (via electrical stimulation) will generate sufficient ...
    Gerrard Farrell


    scotfoot, Today at 11:55 AM

  • scotfootActive Member

    Further to the above , an extremely interesting paper was very recently published , Koyama et al 2017 (below) , which looked at fatiguing the muscles of the foot and the effect this has on postural sway . They found that the exercises reduced some aspects of postural sway .
    The authors stated -

    "This study revealed that fatiguing foot muscle exercises decreased foot muscle strength and altered postural sway during standing. Interestingly, the fatiguing foot muscle exercises decreased the COP range and velocity while standing compared with the pre-fatigue conditions. The decreased foot muscle strength after the exercises was not associated with changed postural sway during standing after the exercises ".

    What makes this paper so interesting is that the exercises used in the study would have fatigued the extrinsic foot muscles but not the intrinsics ( calf raises and toe curls do not target the intrinsics and a toe grip dynamometer measures extrinsic toe flexor strength )

    Contrary to the interpretation of the authors I believe this paper may show better postural stability with less extrinsic foot muscle input and greater reliance on the intrinsics .

    Altered postural sway following fatiguing foot muscle exercises - PLOS
    by K Koyama - ‎2017
    7 Dec 2017 - The activities of the intrinsic and extrinsic plantar muscles contribute to postural stability during upright standing, especially in the single-leg standing [9]. Foot muscle strength is considered to be one of the important essentials that provides postural control while standing [10]; however, the relationship between foot muscle ...
    Gerrard Farrell