A paper (1) was recently published which looked at the role of two of the intrinsic foot muscles and balance .Here is the conclusion .

"The findings of this study demonstrate that the vestibular system is able to modulate activity in the abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi during standing. This experiment extends the previously reported operational bandwidth of coherent frequencies in the MG (0-20 Hz) (Dakin et al. 2007; Dalton et al. 2014) to intrinsic foot muscles. Elevated cortical demand and lack of visual input increase the corrective response to a vestibular error signal at predominantly lower frequencies, indicating that there are likely different origins of the short- and medium-latency responses. The abductor hallucis and the abductor digiti minimi are likely important contributors to upright standing balance control and they are capable of dynamic vestibular responses which can be modulated by other sensory feedback as well as by cortical activity. "

(1)
vestibular modulation of the abductor hallucis and the ... - Scholars' Bank

https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/.../Final Thesis-Wallace.pdf?...1
by J Wallace - ‎2016 - ‎Related articles
explore the vestibular system. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intrinsic foot muscles are modulated by vestibular activity and to elucidate any changes in the association between the vestibular stimulation and electromyography (EMG) responses in response to changes in head position, visual cues, and ...

Gerrard Farrell

Glasgow

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