Still on the general subject of the foot ,diabetes and the intrinsic foot muscles , the effects of exercise on peripheral artery disease (PAD) is well worth considering . Exercise has been shown to slow and even improve PAD although obviously the tissues served by a particular artery or group of arteries must be capable of being exercised to cause an increase in blood flow . In a foot with atrophied intrinsics , it follows that specific foot exercise will not be as effective at increasing blood flow in the foot arteries ( tibialis anterior ,tibialis posterior and the peroneal artery ), as exercises in a foot without atrophied intrinsics .( Note ; it is my understanding that exercises of the ankle do not increase blood flow to the foot itself but rather only to the tissues of the shank )

Thus maintaining adequate arterial supply to a foot with atropied intrinsics may be an uphill battle but may become easier if the intrinsics can be restored or preserved via progressive resistance exercise .

Any thoughts ?