Dear Biomch-L:

As expected, I was not exactly inundated with available pediatric biomechanical
data. There has been a fair amount of work conducted on pediatric gait analysis,
and at least 2 papers on mechanical properties are being published shortly.
Following is a summary of the responses that I received, as well as some of the
better papers in my own personal library.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>From Lynne Bilston, University of Sydney:

Susan Margulies and Kirk Thibault have done some work on brain and skull
properties of neonatal specimens. This work will be published at the IRCOBI
Conference in September.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Dieter Rosenbaum at Universitaet Ulm in Germany provided the following
list of references on pediatric gait

(1) Anderson, M., M. Blais, W. T. Green: Growth of the normal foot
during childhood and adolescence. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology 14 (1956), 287-308.

(2) Anderson, M., M. Blais Messner, W. T. Green: Distribution of
lengths of the normal femur and tibia in children from one to eight
years of age. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 46-A (1964), 1197-1202.

(3) Forriol, F., J. Pascual: Footprint analysis between three and
seventeen years of age. Foot Ankle 11 (1990), 101-104.

(4) Greer, N., J. Hamill, K. Campbell: Ground reaction forces in
children's gait. Journal of Biomechanics 21 (1988), 879.

(5) Grimston, S. K., B. M. Nigg, D. A. Hanley, J. R. Engsberg:
Differences in ankle joint complex range of motion as a function of age.
Foot Ankle 14 (1993), 215-222.

(6) Hennig, E., D. Rosenbaum: Pressure distribution patterns under the
feet of children in comparison with adults. Foot Ankle 11 (1991),
306-311.

(7) Hennig, E. M., A. Staats, D. Rosenbaum: Plantar pressure
distribution patterns of young school children in comparison to adults.
Foot Ankle 15 (1994), 35-40.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

>From Kim Burton at the University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom:

A paper will be appearing in Spine later this year entitled 'The natural history of
back pain in adolescents' by Burton AK, Clarke RD, McClune TD, Tillotson KM.
It includes some lumbar flexibility data.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>From my own library, I will add the following references:

Sturtz G. Biomechanical data of children. 24th Stapp Car Crash Conference
Proceedings. SAE Paper No. 801313, 1980. (Good paper covering the entire
body.)

Brun Cassan F, et al. Comparative study of restrained child dummies and
cadavers in experimental crashes. SAE Paper No. 933105, 1993. (Mostly
concerned with evaluating the biofidelity of child anthropomorphic dummies.)

Snyder RG. Impact injury tolerances of infants and children in free-fall.
Proceedings of the 13th AAAM (Association for the Advancement of
Automotive Medicine) Conference, 1969.

Beusenberg MC, et al. Status of injury biomechanics for the development of
child dummies. SAE Paper No. 933104, 1993.

Currey JD and Butler G. The mechanical properties of bone tissue in children. J
Bone Joint Surg, Vol. 57A, pp.810-814, 1975.

Hubbard RP and Soutas-Little RW. Mechanical properties of human tendon and
their age dependence. J Biomech Eng, Vol. 106, pp.144-150, 1984.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I would certainly welcome any additional information that anyone might have.
My main interest is in the injury tolerance of children, for all regions of the
body. Plots of tissue strength/tolerance versus age would be ideal.

Thanks to everyone who responded to my original post.

Sincerely,
Mike Kleinberger

*****************************************

Dr. Michael Kleinberger
Director, Neck Injury Research Program
Biomechanics Research Division
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

E-mail: mkleinberger@nhtsa.dot.gov

*****************************************